Biology

Disorders of Nervous System

Disorders of nervous system can be categorized into two main types i.e. vascular disorders e.g. paralysis and functional disorders e.g. epilepsy. Vascular disorders are due to any disturbance in the blood supply to nervous system while functional disorders are due to disturbance in nerve impulse generation and transmission.

1. Paralysis

Paralysis is the complete loss of function by one or more muscle groups. It is most often caused by damage to the central nervous system (brain or spinal cord). The damage may be due to stroke (rupture in a blood vessel of brain or spinal cord), blood clotting in these blood vessels, or poison produced by polio viruses.

Patient may have weak paralysis throughout his/her body or have paralysis in one side of body. There may also be paralysis in the lower extremities or in all four limbs.

2. Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a nervous disorder in which there is abnormal and excessive discharge of nerve impulses in brain. It causes unprovoked seizures in patient. A seizure of epilepsy is a temporary abnormal state of brain marked by convulsions.

In younger people, epilepsy may be due to genetic or developmental causes. In people over of 40 years age, brain tumours are more likely to cause epilepsy. Head trauma and central nervous system infections may cause epilepsy at any age.

There is no known cure of epilepsy but medicines can control seizures. Patients of epilepsy have to take medicines daily for the treatment as well as prevention of seizures. These are termed “anticonvulsant” or “antiepileptic” drugs.

seizer Attack

During a seizure attack, objects should never be placed in a patient’s mouth as it can result in serious injury. It is possible that the patient will bite his/her own tongue.

 

The knowledge of the composition and functioning of nervous system has helped man in the diagnosis and treatment of nervous disorders including paralysis and epilepsy. Man has discovered the areas of brain that receive information from different sense organs and the areas that send messages to different effectors. Such knowledge helps a lot in identifying the malfunctioning areas of brain.

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