Biology

Disorders of Skeleton System

The following disorders of skeletal system are important.

1. Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a bone disease in adults, especially in old people. It is more common in old women. In osteoporosis, there is a decrease in the density of bones due to loss of calcium and phosphorus. It may be due to malnutrition (lack of proteins and Vitamin C), lack of physical activities or deficiency of estrogen hormone. In old age, there is decreased secretion of growth hormones and it also leads to decreased deposition of minerals in bone matrix.

It is one of the functions of esterogen to deposit minerals in bones. When the reproductive cycle stops in females, not enough esterogen is secreted.

2. Arthritis

Arthritis means “inflammation in joints”. It is also very common in old age and in women. It is characterised by pain and stiffness in joints (particularly in the weight bearing joints e.g. hip joint, ankle joint etc.). The treatment of arthritis includes pain killer and anti inflammatory medicines. There are many types of arthritis, for example:

a. Osteo-arthritis:

It is due to degeneration in the cartilage present at joints or due to decreased lubricant production at joints. In this arthritis, fusion of the bones at joint may occur and joints may become totally immoveable.

b. Rheumatoid arthritis:

It involves the inflammation of the membranes at joints. Its symptoms include fatigue, low-grade fever, pain and stiffness in joints.

c. Gout:

It is characterised by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in moveable joints. It generally attacks the toe joints.

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