Biology

Gaseous Exchange

We have studied how cells generate ATPs from food. Cellular respiration is the process in which the C-H bonds in food are broken by oxidation reduction reactions and the energy is transformed into ATP. In aerobic respiration, oxygen is used and there is complete oxidation of the food material. Carbon dioxide and water are also produced in this process.

Recalling:

Organisms need energy in the form of ATP for their activities.

Organisms get the oxygen, needed for cellular respiration, from their environment and provide it to their cells. The carbon dioxide produced during cellular respiration is taken out of the cells and ultimately from the body. Taking in of oxygen and giving out of carbon dioxide is termed as gaseous exchange.

The term breathing is used for the process through which animals take air in their bodies to get oxygen from it and then give out the air to get rid of carbon dioxide. Thus breathing and respiration are not synonymous. Respiration involves the mechanical and the bio-chemical processes whereas breathing is only the mechanical or physical process of exchange of gases.

In this we will go through the mechanisms of gaseous exchange in plants and in humans.

GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN PLANTS


Plants have no organs or systems for the exchange of gases with the environment. Every cell of the plant body exchanges gases with the environment by its own.

The leaves and young stems have stomata in their epidermis. The gaseous exchange occurs through these stomata. The inner cells of leaves (mesophyll) and stems also have air spaces among them, which help in the exchange of gases.

Gaseous exchange in a leaf
Gaseous exchange in a leaf

In young stems and leaves, some gaseous exchange also occurs through the cuticle which is present over their epidermis.

Leaf cells face two situations. During the daytime when the mesophyll cells of leaves are carrying out photosynthesis and respiration side by side, the oxygen produced in photosynthesis is utilized in cellular respiration. Similarly the carbon dioxide produced during cellular respiration is utilized in photosynthesis. However, during night when there is no photosynthesis occurring, the leaf cells get oxygen from the environment and release carbon dioxide through stomata.

In woody stems and mature roots, the entire surface is covered by bark which is impervious to gases or water. However, there are certain pores in the layer of bark. These are called the lenticels. The lenticels allow air to pass through them.

The lenticels are slightly more raised than the general surface of the stem.

Gases diffuse in and out of the general surface of the young roots. The gases are found in the soil surrounding the roots. The aquatic plants get the oxygen dissolved in water and release carbon dioxide in the water.

Lenticels on a stem and the internal view of a lenticel
Lenticels on a stem and the internal view of a lenticel

GASEOUS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS


In humans and other higher animals the exchange of gases is carried out by the respiratory system. We can divide the respiratory system in two parts i.e. the air passageway and the lungs.

1. The Air Passageway

The air passageway consists of the parts through which the outside air comes in the lungs and after the exchange of gases it goes out. This passage of air consists of the following parts.

The nose encloses the nasal cavity. It opens to the outside through the openings called the nostrils. The nasal cavity is divided into two portions by a wall. Each portion is lined by fine hairs and mucus which filter the dust particles from the air. The mucus also moistens and warms the incoming air and keeps its temperature nearly equal to that of the body.

The air passageway and the Lungs
The air passageway and the Lungs

The nasal cavity opens into the pharynx by means of two small openings called internal nostrils. Pharynx is a muscular passage and is common to both food and air. It extends to the opening of the oesophagus and the larynx. The air goes from the pharynx into the larynx. We know that glottis is a narrow opening at the floor of pharynx which leads into larynx.

Recalling:

The glottis is guarded by a flap of tissue called the epiglottis.

The larynx is a box, made of cartilage. It is present between pharynx and trachea. It is also called the voice box. Two pairs of fibrous bands called vocal cords are stretched across the larynx. The vocal cords vibrate when the air passes through them. This vibration produces sounds.

The vibrations in vocal cords and the movements of lips, cheeks, tongue and jaws produce specific sounds which result in speech Speech is an ability that only humans are gifted with and this is one of the characteristics which has put human beings superior to all.

Larynx continues to the trachea, which is also called the windpipe. It is about 12 cm long tube which lies in front of the oesophagus. There are C-shaped cartilagenous rings in the wall of trachea. The cartilages keep the trachea from collapsing even when there is no air in it.

On entering the chest cavity, the trachea divides into two smaller tubes called bronchi (Singular, bronchus). The bronchi also have cartilagenous plates in their walls. Each bronchus enters into the lung of its side and then divides into smaller branches.

The bronchi continue dividing in the lungs until they make several fine tubes called bronchioles. The bronchioles progressively lose the cartilages as they become narrower. The bronchioles end as fine tubules called the alveolar ducts. Each alveolar duct opens into a cluster of pouches called alveoli. The alveoli form the respiratory surface in human body Each alveolus is a sac-like structure lined by a single layer of epithelial cells. It is bound on the outside by a network of capillaries.

The trachea and the bronchi are also lined with ciliated and glandular cells. The glandular cells secrete mucus which moistens the air and also traps any fine particles of dust or bacteria that have escaped from the nasal cavity. The cilia beat with an upward motion so that the foreign particles along the mucus are sent to the oral cavity from where it may be either swallowed or coughed out.

The pulmonary artery from the heart containing deoxygenated blood enters the lungs and branches into arterioles and then into capillaries which surround the alveoli. These then join together to form the venules which form pulmonary vein. The pulmonary vein carries the oxygenated blood back to the heart.

2. The Lungs

All the alveoli on one side constitute a lung. There is a pair of lungs in the thoracic cavity. The chest wall is made up of 12 pairs of ribs and the rib muscles called intercostal muscles. A thick muscular structure, called diaphragm, is present below the lungs.

The left lung is slightly smaller and has two lobes and the right lung is bigger with three lobes. They are spongy and elastic organs. The lungs also have blood vessels that are the branches of the pulmonary arteries and veins. Each lung is enclosed by two membranes called the outer pleural membrane and the inner pleural membrane. The membranes enclose a fluid which provides lubrication for the free expanding and contracting movements of the lungs.

Lungs and pleural membrane
Lungs and pleural membranes

The Mechanism of Breathing


The physical movements associated with the gaseous exchange are called breathing. There are two phases of breathing i.e. inhalation and exhalation.

1. Inspiration or Inhalation

During inspiration, the rib muscles contract and ribs are raised. At the same time the dome-shaped diaphragm contracts and is lowered. These movements increase the area of the thoracic cavity, which reduces the pressure on lungs. As a result, the lungs expand and the air pressure within them also decreases. The air from outside rushes into the lungs to equalize the pressure on both sides.

2. Expiration or Exhalation

After the gaseous exchange in the lungs, the impure air is expelled out in exhalation. The rib muscles relax bringing the ribs back to the original position. The diaphragm muscles also relax and it gets its raised dome shape. This reduces the space in the chest cavity and increases the pressure on lungs. The lungs contract and the air is expelled out of them.

Humans breathe 16-20 times per minute in normal circumstances i.e. at rest. The rate of breathing is controlled by the respiratory centre in the brain. The respiratory centre is sensitive to the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood.

The breathing movements are involuntary to a large extent. However, we can control the rate of breathing but not for a long time.

When we do exercise or some hard job our muscle cells carry out cellular respiration at greater rate. It results in the production of more carbon dioxide which is released in the blood. This greater than normal concentration of carbon dioxide stimulates the respiratory centre of brain. The respiratory centre sends messages to the rib muscles and diaphragm to increase the rate of breathing so that the excess carbon dioxide present in blood can be removed out of body. During exercise or other hard physical works the breathing rate may increase up to 30-40 times per minute.

Expiration or Exhalation
Expiration or Exhalation
FeatureInspired AirExpired Air
Amount of Oxygen21%16%
Amount of carbon dioxides0.04%4%
Amount of nitrogen79%79%
Amount of water vaporsVariableSaturated
Amount of dust particlesVariableAlmost none
TemperatureVariableAlmost equal to body temperature

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