Biology

Receptors in Humans

We know that the organs or parts which are specifically built to detect particular type of stimuli are called sense organs or receptors. Main receptors in man are eyes, ears, nose, taste buds, receptors of touch, heat and cold etc.

1. Eye

Our eyes are located in small portions of skull known as the orbits or eye socket Eyelids wipe eyes and prevent dehydration. They spread tears on eyes, which contain substances for fighting bacterial infections. Eyelashes prevent fine particles from entering eye. The structure of eye can be divided into three main layers.

The outer layer of eyeball consists of sclera and cornea. Sclera gives eye most its white colour. It consists of dense connective tissue and protects the inner components of eye and maintains its shape. In the front, sclera forms the transparent cornea. Cornea admits light to the interior of eye and bends light rays so that they can b brought to a focus.

Structure of Human Eye
Structure of Human Eye

The middle layer is called choroid. It contains blood vessels and gives the inner eye a dark colour. The dark colour prevents disruptive reflections within eye. Behind comea, choroid bends to form a muscular ring, called iris. There is round hole, called pupil, in the centre of iris.

After striking the cornea, light passes through the pupil. The size of pupil is adjusted by the muscles of iris. Pupil constricts in bright light when the circular muscles of iris contract. Similarly, pupil dilates in dim light when the radial muscles of iris contract.

Contraction and dilation of pupil
Contraction and dilation of pupil

Behind iris, there is a convex lens, which focuses light on retina. Lens is attached to ciliary muscles of eye via a ring of suspensory ligament. To clearly see an object far away, ciliary muscles are relaxed and lens becomes less convex. When cillary muscles contract, lens becomes more convex and round.

The inner layer is sensory and is called as retina. It contains the photosensitive cells  called rods and cones and associated neurons. Rods are sensitive to dim light while cones are sensitive to bright light and so distinguish different colours. Retina has two points l.e. fovea and optic disc.

In a human eye there are about 12.5 millions rods and 0.7 millions cones.

Fovea is a dip in retina, directly opposite to lens and is densely packed with cone cells. It is largely responsible for colour vision and sharpness. Optic disc is a point on retina where the optic nerve enters retina. There are no rods and cones at this point, that is why it is also referred to as the blind spot.

Have you seen the eyes of cat and dog shining in the night? The reason for this is the presence of tapetum behind the eye which is a layer capable of reflecting light.

The iris divides the cavity of eye into two chambers. The anterior chamber is in front of iris i.e. between cornea and iris; whereas the posterior chamber is between ins and retina. The anterior chamber contains a clear fluid known as aqueous humour while the posterior chamber contains a jelly-like fluid known as vitreous humour. It helps maintain the shape of eye and suspends the delicate lens.

Light from objects enters eye and is refracted when it passes through cornea, aqueous humour, lens and vitreous humour. Lens also focuses light on retina. As a result, the image falls on retina. Rods and cones generate nerve impulses in the optic nerve. These impulses are carried to the brain, which makes the sensation of vision.

Rods contain a pigment called rhodopsin. When light falls on rhodopsin, it breaks for generating a nerve impulse. In the absence of light, the breakdown products are again converted into rhodopsin. Body synthesizes rhodopsin from vitamin A and that is why the deficiency of vitamin A causes poor night vision. This problem is called night blindness.

Cones also contain a pigment, known as iodopsin. There are three main types of cones and each type has a specific iodopsin. Each type of cones recognizes one of the three primary colours i.e. blue, green and red. If any type of cones is not working well, it becomes difficult to recognize that colour. Such person is also not able to distinguish different colours. This disease is called colour blindness and it is a genetic problem.

Runway Lights
Runway Lights

For a pilot, colour vision is essential so that he/she can recognize aircraft position lights, light-gun signals, airport beacon, approach-slope indicators, and chart symbols, especially at night. A pilot must have the ability to perceive these colours necessary for the safe performance of his/her duties.

Disorders of the Eye

The working of eye is affected by the changes in the shape of eyeball.

Myopia (Short sight)

The elongation of eyeball results in myopia. Such persons are not able to see distart objects clearly. The image of a distant object is formed in front of retina (Fig. 12.9). This problem can be rectified by using concave lens.

Hypermetropia (Long sight):

It happens when eyeball shortens. Such persons are not able to see near objects clearly. The image is formed behind retina. Convex lens is used to rectify this problem.

Myopia and Hypermetropia
Myopia and Hypermetropia

Contributions of Muslim Scientists

Ali ibn Isa (950-1012) was a famous Arab scientist. He wrote three books on ophthalmology (study of the diseases and surgery of eyes). He described 130 eye diseases and prescribed 143 drugs to treat these diseases.

Ibn al-Haytham’s “Book of Optics has been ranked alongside a book of Isaac Newton. It is one of the most influential books ever written in the history of physics.

Ibn al-Haytham (965-1039), an Arab scientist, made significant contributions to the principles of eye and vision. He is regarded as the father of optics (study of the behaviour of light).

His “Book of Optics” correctly explained and proved the modern theory of vision. He discussed the topics of medicine and eye surgery in his book. He made several improvements to eye surgery and accurately described the process of sight, the structure of eye, image formation in eye and visual system. Ibn al-Haytham also described the principles of pinhole camera.

Owl

Owl is not able to see during day time. The reason for this is the deficiency of cones which receive and sense the bright light. But the presence of more rods gives it greater power of vision during night. All animals that search for prey during night have this characteristic.

2. Ear

Hearing is as important as vision. Our ear helps us in hearing and also to maintain the balance or equilibrium of our body. Ear has three main parts i.e. external ear, middle ear. and internal ear.

A-External Ear

External ear consists of pinna, auditory canal and ear drum (tympanum). Pinna is the broad external part, made of cartilage and covered with skin. It helps to direct sound waves into auditory canal. There are special glands in the walls of auditory canal, which produce wax.

The wax and the hairs in auditory canal protect ear from small insects, germs and dust. In additions to this, they help to maintain the temperature and dampness of auditory canal. Auditory canal ends in ear drum. This thin membrane separates external ear from middle ear.

Structure of Human ear
Structure of Human ear

B-Middle Ear

Middle ear is a chamber after external ear. Three small bones, called middle ear ossicles, are present in a chain in middle ear. These movable bones include malleus, incus and stapes.

Malleus is attached with ear drum, then comes incus and finally stapes that is connected with a membrane called oval window. Oval window separates middle ear from inner ear. Middle ear also communicates with the nasal cavity through Eustachian tube. This tube regulates the air pressure on both sides of ear drum.

Structure of inner ear
Structure of inner ear

Stapes is the smallest bone of the human body.

Hold the fingers of your palm close to each other and place it behind the pinna. Then concentrate on a particular sound continuously having the same frequency Remove the palm and concentrate on the same sound again.

C-Inner Ear

Inner ear consists of three parts i.e. vestibule, semicircular canals and cochlea. Vestibule is present in the centre of inner ear. Three canals called semicircular canals are posterior to the vestibule. The cochlea is made of three ducts and wraps itself into a coiled tube. Sound receptor cells are present within Che middle duct of cochlea.

The Process of Hearing

The pinna of the external ear focuses and directs sound waves into auditory canal. The sound waves strike ear drum and produce vibrations in it. From ear drum, the vibrations strike middle ear and produce further vibrations in malleus, incus and then stapes. From stapes, the vibrations strike the oval window and then reach the fluid-filled middle duct of cochlea. The fluid of cochlea is moved and receptor cells are stimulated. The receptor cells generate a nerve impulse, which travels to brain and is interpreted as sound.

Ears maintain the Balance of Body

Semicircular canals and vestibule help to maintain the balance of body. Semicircular canals contain sensory nerves which can detect any movement of head. Vestibule can detect any changes in the posture of body. The neurons coming from these two receptors reach cerebellum through the auditory nerve.

Thunderstorm
Thunderstorm

A thunderstorm is characterized by the presence lightning and a thunder. The lightning is caused by an electrical charge due to the movement of water droplets or crystals carried by the wind. The sudden increase in pressure and temperature from lightning produces rapid expansion of the air. This expansion of air produces a sound of thunder. The flash of lighting is followed after some seconds by a roar of thunder. This time difference is due to the fact that sound travels slower than light.

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