Botany

Biological diversity and its conservation

“The variability among living, inter alia, terrestrial , marine and other aquatic systems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity with in species, between species , and of ecosystems” Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992.

  • The totality of genes, species and ecosystems in the region” IUCN.
  • “ The wealth of life on earth, the millions of plants, animals and microorganisms, the genes they contain, and the intricate ecosystems they help build into living environment.” World wildlife Funds.

1. Genetic Biodiversity:

GENETIC BIODIVERSITY IS THE VARIATION IN GENES THAT EXISTS WITHIN A SPECIES. A HELPFUL WAY TO UNDERSTAND GENETIC DIVERSITY IS TO THINK ABOUT DOGS. ALL DOGS ARE PART OF THE SAME SPECIES, BUT THEIR GENES CAN DICTATE WHETHER THEY ARE CHIHUAHUA OR A GREAT DANE. THERE CAN BE A LOT OF VARIATION IN GENES.JUST THINK

ABOUT ALL THE COLORS, SIZES, AND SHAPES THAT MAKE UP THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF DOGS.

  • SPECIES OF DATE PALM.

 Genetic-Biodiversity-in-dogs

 Genetic-Biodiversity-in-bananas

2. Ecological Biodiversity:

ECOLOGICAL BIODIVERSITY IS THE DIVERSITY OF ECOSYSTEMS, NATURAL COMMUNITIES AND HABITATS. IN ESSENCE, IT’S THE VARIETY OF WAYS THAT SPECIES INTERACT WITH EACH OTHER AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT. THE FORESTS OF MAINE DIFFER FROM THE FORESTS OF COLORADO BY THE TYPES OF SPECIES FOUND IN BOTH ECOSYSTEMS, AS WELL AS THE TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL.

THESE TWO SEEMINGLY SIMILAR ECOSYSTEMS HAVE A LOT OF DIFFERENCES THAT MAKE THEM BOTH SPECIAL.

  • OR TEMPERATE FORESTS, HOT AND COLD DESERTS, WETLANDS, RIVERS, MOUNTAINS, CORAL REEFS, ETC. EACH ECOSYSTEM CORRESPONDS TO A SERIES OF COMPLEX RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BIOTIC (LIVING) COMPONENTS SUCH AS PLANTS AND ANIMALS AND ABIOTIC (NON-LIVING) COMPONENTS WHICH INCLUDE SUNLIGHT, AIR, WATER, MINERALS AND NUTRIENTS.
  • SAHARA AND KALAHARI IN AFRICA, ARABIAN DESERT IN MIDDLE EAST, GREAT VICTORIA DESERT IN AUSTRALIA, GOBI DESERT IN ASIA, AND GREAT BASIN DESERT IN NORTH AMERICA, THE ANTARCTIC AND ARCTIC DESERTS.
  • WETLANDS, RIVERS, MOUNTAINS, CORAL REEFS.

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

BIODIVERSITY IS ONE OF THE ESSENTIAL PREREQUISITES THAT SUSTAIN HUMAN SOCIETY .

✓  BIODIVERSITY GENERALLY REFERS TO THE VARIETY AND VARIABILITY OF LIFE ON EARTH.

BIODIVERSITY TYPICALLY MEASURES VARIATION AT THE GENETIC, THE SPECIES, AND THE ECOSYSTEM LEVEL.

TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY TENDS TO BE GREATER NEAR THE EQUATOR, WHICH SEEMS TO BE THE RESULT OF THE WARM CLIMATE AND HIGH PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY.

TROPICAL FOREST ECOSYSTEMS COVER LESS THAN 10 PER CENT OF EARTH’S SURFACE, AND CONTAIN ABOUT 90 PERCENT OF THE WORLD’S SPECIES.

MARINE BIODIVERSITY TENDS TO BE HIGHEST ALONG COASTS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC, WHERE SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE IS HIGHEST.

Biodiversity-and-Conservation-

AMOUNT OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

AMOUNT-OF-BIOLOGICAL-DIVERSITY-

 

  • At least twice of the number of described species remains undescribed.
    • Only 4000 bacterial species are taxonomically described, on the other hand , 4000 Species of bacteria found in a single gram of soil in Norway.
  • Insufficient collection: such as from deep sea and rainforests.
    • Phylum Loricifera was first discovered rom deep sea in 1983.

Biodiversity

Giant Muntjac deer

Giant Muntjac deer discovered in mountain rainforest.

Biodiversity

DECLINE IN BIODIVERSITY

✓  WE HAVE BEEN LOSING 1-10% OF OUR BIODIVERSITY PER DECADE

✓  ABOUT TWELVE THOUSAND VERTEBRATE AND INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS HAVE BEEN RECOGNIZED AS THREATENED BY 2015 .

✓  MORE THAN 50% OF THE VERTEBRATE SPECIES HAVE DECLINED IN LAST FOUR DECADES ACROSS THE WORLD.

✓  ABOUT SEVEN PERCENT OF THE DESCRIBED PLANT SPECIES ARE IN DANGER OF EXTINCTION.

HOWEVER, THESE ESTIMATIONS ARE FAR BELOW THE ACTUAL NUMBER OF THREATENED SPECIES BECAUSE, FIRST, LARGE NUMBERS OF SPECIES ARE STILL TAXONOMICALLY UNDESCRIBED; AND SECOND, THESE ESTIMATES WERE BASED ON THE ASSESSMENT OF A LIMITED PROPORTION OF DESCRIBED SPECIES WHICH WERE EVALUATED FOR THEIR CONSERVATION STATUS.

 

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN

 

✓  195 MAMMAL SPECIES (6 BEING ENDEMIC), 20 THREATENED

✓  668 BIRD SPECIES (25 BEING ENDANGERED), 25 THREATENED

✓  177 REPTILE SPECIES (13 BEING ENDEMIC), 6 THREATENED

✓  22 AMPHIBIANS (9 BEING ENDEMIC),

✓  198 FRESH WATER FISHES (29 BEING ENDEMIC),

✓  5,000 SPECIES OF INVERTEBRATES,

✓  5,700 SPECIES OF FLOWERING PLANTS (OVER 400 BEING ENDEMIC).

POTENTIAL THREATS TO BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN

 

✓  OVERGRAZING & DEFORESTATION ( 2ND HIGHEST RATE WORLDWIDE).

✓  THE DIVERSION OF WATER FOR IRRIGATION HAS ADVERSELY IMPACTED THE ECOLOGY OF MANGROVE AND RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS.

✓  GAME BIRDS AND ANIMALS ARE HEAVILY HUNTED.

✓  FISHERIES FROM INLAND AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS ARE HARVESTED TO THE FULL LIMIT (WITH PRESSURE INCREASING IN PARALLEL WITH POPULATION GROWTH).

✓  AGROBIODIVERSITY HAS SUFFERED SERIOUS EROSION DUE TO THE INTRODUCTION OF HIGHER YIELDING VARIETIES AND THE USE OF AGROCHEMICALS.

✓  POLLUTION AND DISPOSAL OF UNTREATED SEWAGE AND INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT INTO THE RIVERS AND SEAS ARE MAJOR THREATS TO AQUATIC AND MARINE BIODIVERSITY.

AICHI BIODIVERSITY TARGETS, BY 2020

 Plan-of-2020

✓  ADDRESS THE CAUSES OF BIODIVERSITY LOSS.

 MASS AWARENESS, STEPS TO CONSERVATION.
 INTEGRATION OF BIODIVERSITY VALUES INTO LOCAL AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS.
 SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION, USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES WELL WITHIN SAFE ECOLOGICAL LIMITS.

✓  REDUCE PRESSURE AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE USE.

 RATE OF HABITAT LOSS HALVES, REDUCE FRAGMENTATION.
✓  FISH STOCK AND AQUATIC PLANTS TO BE MANAGED WITH IN SAFE ECOLOGICAL LIMITS.
✓  REDUCE POLLUTION LEVEL TO SAFEGUARD ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS.
✓  IDENTIFICATION OF INVASIVE SPECIES AND THEIR PATHWAYS.

✓  SAFEGUARD SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEMS

 CONSERVATION OF AT LEAST 17% TERRESTRIAL AND INLAND WATER
 10% OF COSTAL AND MARINE
 PREVENTION OF KNOWN THREATENED SPECIES

✓  ENHANCE BENEFITS FROM BIODIVERSITY & ECOSYSTEM SERVICE

✓  HEALTH & WELLBEING
  LIVELIHOOD, CLEAN WATER
✓  CONTRIBUTION OF BIODIVERSITY TO CARBON STOCK
✓  COMBATING DESERTIFICATION

One Comment

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