Ecology and its different Types


The term ecology is derived form Greek words “Eco” meaning “the family household” and “logy” meaning “to study”
This term ecology was used by German Zoologist Ernest Haeckel in 1866.
Ecology is also the study of the relationship of organism to their environment. This relationship includes interaction with physical world and with members of other species and same species.
The organisms are directly affected by the environment. Similarly activities of organisms try to change the environment.
Environment is the physical and biological conditions under which an organism lives.

Scope and Development

Ecology is the study of distribution and abundance of organism It includes the study of factors which control the number and location of the organisms There are different levels of ecology Interactions of the organism and environment take place in each level.

Types of Ecology

There are two types of ecology

  1. Autecology
  2. Synecology

1. Autecology:

The study of relationship of a single population to its environment is called autecology.

For example A person is studying the effect of water pollution on 50-100 plants of soybean on their growth and yield. As this person is studying the single or one population of soybean plants, so this is autecology.

2. Synecology:

The study of relationship of different communities or group of populations to their environment is called synecology.
Growth responses of individual plant to environment are a complex factors. One factor increases the effect of other factor These factors interact with one another.
Complexity of environment depends on the combination of various factors.

Factors of Synecology:

Following factors are studied in synecology:

  • The various aspects of community like the origin, structure and composition of community.
  • History of community.
  • The dynamics of community.
  • Three levels of integration in the community which are individual, population and community.


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