Chemistry

Electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

Abstract

Potential cathode materials for lithium-ion secondary batteries were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The structural and electrochemical properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and charge and discharge tests. The results showed that the -NaFeO2 type maintained a layered structure regardless of the magnesium content in the strip.

Recently, the lithium-ion battery is the main power source for portable electronic devices. However, these energy sources have many limitations in transportation and other high-level applications. This mini-review discusses the latest trends in electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. Elemental doping and coating have changed the most commonly used electrode materials, which are used as anode or cathode materials. This leads to high Li ion differentiation, mobility, and ionic conductivity in addition to specific capacities. Many recently reported electrode materials have been shown to improve performance, analyzed based on several parameters such as cycling stability, specific capacitance, specific energy, and charge/discharge rate. Therefore, the current scenario of Li-ion battery electrode materials can be very promising to improve battery performance to be more efficient than before. This can reduce reliance on fossil fuels such as coal for power generation.

On the other hand, Mg doping significantly increases the retention capacity. Moreover, Mg doping favors Li+ diffusion in LiNi0.7Co0.3O2. In addition, Mg doping suppresses the phase transition that normally occurs in LiNiO2 during cycling and increases the charge-discharge reversibility of Li/LiNi0.7Co0.3O2. The cathode performance at a high temperature of 55.5°C was also improved by Mg doping, which is probably due to the stronger metal-oxygen bonding and structural stability of this Mg-doped lithiated cathode during cycling.

1. Introduction

Research on cathode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries has generated great interest in LiNiO2 and LiCoO2 layered materials in recent years. Doped LiNiO2 can have better electrochemical properties than LiNiO2. Lithium-nickel-cobalt oxide is the most promising positive electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-nickel-cobalt oxide (LiNiCoO2) is commercially available from several Japanese companies for the practical production of lithium-ion polymer batteries. Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of such systems, which have a high potential for commercial use. Among the different values, 0.3 gave the most interesting electrochemical properties. LiNi0.74Co0.26O2 with excellent electrochemical properties was synthesized by solution, and Mg-doped LiNi0.74Co0.26O2 with excellent electrochemical properties was synthesized by a special sol-gel method. Reversibility decreases during pedaling and thermal stability need to be improved. Al, Mg, Mn, Mg/Ti, and similar doped lattices have been investigated to solve the problem. Actually, Mg2+ has no 3d state, but Mn4+ has a different 3d state from Cr6+.

Reducing the CO2 impact is the main driver for the development of greener and more efficient alternative energy sources, which has led to the replacement of traditional and conventional sources. New applications of energy conversion and storage technologies have attracted attention to meet increasing energy demands. For this purpose, secondary batteries have become very important and in this regard, Li-ion batteries have been extensively researched. A lithium-ion battery consists of an anode, cathode, separator, and carrier solution in which lithium ions move from the cathode to the anode and vice versa during the charge/discharge process. Common materials used to make anodes are lithium metal, graphite carbon, hard carbon, synthetic graphite, lithium titanate, lead-based compounds, and silicon-based materials. The materials used to make the cathode are lithium manganese, lithium cobalt oxide, FeS2, V2O5, lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide, lithium-ion phosphate, and conductive polymer oxide. Materials used as electrolytes include LiPF6, LiAsF6, and LiCF3SO3. In addition to these main ingredients, there are other materials such as binders, flame retardants, gel precursors, and electrolyte solvents. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used to power various mobile electronic devices due to their high energy density and environmental friendliness. Despite these advantages, the lifetime and power density still need to be improved for use in electric vehicles (EVs), large-scale energy storage, and other general applications.

Although there have been many advances in battery technology, available batteries are still far from meeting the power consumption needs of electric vehicles. The main reason is uneven power consumption with frequent changes during the battery discharge process, which is harmful to the battery itself. A reliable solution to this problem is to couple the battery with a supercapacitor that has a similar architecture to the battery, but with a better lifetime and energy density so that when the battery fails, it can provide additional energy. Another option is to develop electrode materials to improve the electrochemical readability of LIBs with short diffusion lengths, high mechanical strength, high surface-to-aspect ratio, and fully exposed Be with active surfaces. Another major problem associated with Li-ion batteries is unstable activation at high temperatures and reduced charging and discharging efficiency at low temperatures. It was also found that the charge and discharge efficiency of Li-ion batteries decreased with decreasing temperature, mainly due to the increase of the impedance of the SEI layer, less diffusion of Li+ ions, and the decrease of the reaction kinetics. Here, in this brief review, we present the latest trends in electrode materials and some novel electrode fabrication strategies for Li-ion batteries. Several promising materials with better electrochemical performance were also preselected.

2. Recent trends and prospects of anode materials

The peak potential (3860 mA-1 or 2061 mA cm-3) and the lowest drop at −3.04 V are relative to the initial reference voltage. (Standard Hydrogen Electrode: SHE) Li is a precious metal compared to other metals. But the high activity of lithium causes many challenges in the construction of safe battery cells that can be solved by using materials that can produce lithium ions. And silicon-based materials can be considered as another material, interesting material in lithium metal for LIBs installed later. However, due to the high and high energy storage capacity in the Earth’s soil, the short electrical and ionic conductivity of silicon-containing materials has led to the separation mainly by the development of lithium/lithium dissociation. This can lead to a significant reduction in the energy storage capacity of the electrical system.

To solve the above problems. The silicon that Deb described was made by reacting silicon tetrachloride with magnesium powder. After 100 cycles, Li showed a capacity of 1125mAhg-1 in polymer 1Ag-1. With conductive properties, it is also used as a material for electrodes. It is flexible, clean, reusable, and affordable. In addition to these characteristics, conjugated polymers are also affected by low reflectivity, low absorption, and strong slope due to the charge carrier in the conjugated polymer. Introduction The carbonyl group solves these problems. This is the polymerization of common metal dichalcogenides that became the anodes of many LIBs because of their high capacity.

Schematic design for the formation of durian like NiS2@rGO

Through the hydrothermal method, durian-like [email protected] was prepared in the presence of EDTA-2Na, which is very important in the formation of durian-like samples. The anode materials are shown to have better performance and obtain the operating efficiency of 1053, 947, 885, 798, and 603 mA at current values ​​of 100, 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 mA. Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) anodes were synthesized by a simple wet deposition method, however, they showed instability during charge/discharge. that is due to the presence of SnO2 on the outer plane of the MWCNT anodes single crystal carbon nanotubes when flexible are wrapped in graphene foam to form a double structure. This gives a high conductivity in the composition. Better electrical/electrical connections and shorter electronic transport times, resulting in higher power efficiency. It has a maximum capacity of 953mAh with a charging current of 0.1Ag-1 and consumption of 606mAhg-1 after 1000 cycles. Over 90% capacity for 1000 cycles at 1Ag-1.

Charge /discharge curvature at 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 mA g−1 after stable circulation over the voltage range of 3–0.01 V of durian like NiS2@rGO anodesCharge /discharge curvature at 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 mA g−1 after stable circulation over the voltage range of 3–0.01 V of durian like NiS2@rGO anodes

Sb2O3 is already attached to the substrate in a simple manner. which requires the formation of the Sb-MOFs sample and subsequent purification. As observed from the SEM image, the typical length of the Sb2O3-induced beam is about 20 μm surrounded by many elements and has a final structure like lightning. Improved stability to 277.4 mmHg-1, indicating a potential anode material for Li-ion batteries, TiO2 / MoS2 nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning followed by heat treatment. Hydrothermal treatment and carbonization. After 100 cycles, the TiO2 / MoS2 composite showed a capacity of 479.78 mmHg-1 and was able to maintain capacity up to 97% when tested. The doped carbon nanosheets were coated with CoxOy nanoparticles. After 400 cycles, the device showed the best charging conditions of 1200mAh 1 and 1000mAh for the bag space. Li-ion The simple and high-efficiency preparation method clearly shows the filter material for the preparation of the LIB high-efficiency anode.

(a) and (b) SEM images of bundle shaped Sb2O3

3. Recent trends and prospects of cathode materials

The cathode used in the anode is an oxide or phosphate material commonly used in LIBs. More recently, sulfur and potassium are injected into the lithium manganese backbone and caused the lithium ions to move. And more, the distribution of lithium ions is improved. Open at high tide, it is also possible to maintain the high level of the material by loading/unloading. Electrostatic Galvano analysis has confirmed its stability and high strength.

In another similar attempt, the LiCoO2-coated magnesium (Mg) cathode and the phosphorus (P) LiCoO2 MP cathode (P-coated) with a weight ratio of 3.6gcc-1 showed exceptional rates with a capacity of 112mAhg-1. at 10 °C, which is 14 times better than uncoated LiCoO2 at 4.35V saturation, and the longest cycle life was also observed for the highest energy efficiency at 400Whkg-1. The coated electrode is also thermally stable. Iron disulfide (FeS2) is widely used as the cathode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. In the most recent report, a biomass carbon cathode carbon nanocomposite @FeS2 was synthesized by carbonization-sulfur using auricularia auricula, the green, and renewable auricularia as a carbon source in the process of the sequence. The prepared material is used as a cathode for rechargeable Li-ion batteries.

Illustrative representation of NCNPs-V2O5 composites Illustrative representation of NCNPs-V2O5 composites

Auricularia auricula has a strong ability to absorb iron from aqueous solutions. This caused the release of FeS2 in the biomass medium of the organization. This increased the capacity to about 850 mAh after 80 cycles at 0.5°C and 700 mAh at 2°C after 150 cycles. Nitrogen-containing V2O5 nanoparticles (NCNPs-V2O5) were also synthesized by growth. V2O5 in situ organic solvent-assisted geothermal heating is known as a high cathode material with a theoretical capacity of about 440 mAh for lithium-ion batteries. Therefore, the application of carbon-saturated carbon coating increases the conductivity. Ternary-type LiFeSO4F is a composite material for future Li-ion batteries due to its high oxidation resistance based on Fe2+/3+ and Earth Triplite. LiFeSO4F has solid-state reactions, which often contain distinct and opaque signal regions. This is due to the overlapping and overlapping Li / Fe limits supported in the HAADF-STEM analysis.

HAADF-STEM image of triplite LiFeSO4F

Triplite LiFeSO4F features continuous cycle life of up to 40 cycles and up to 100% coulomb negative without corrosion. Due to the effective reduction of the polarization/transmission power up to 93% due to a significant reduction in the study of superconductivity. Capacity is 80mAhg-1 at 1C and 60mAhg-1 at 5C electrode. New poly(1,4-anthraquinone)/CNT (P14AQ/CNT) nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ polymerization. Based on the data, the carbon nanotubes were evenly distributed in the organization. It offers good cycle stability with a specific capacity of 233 mAh in 100 cycles and improves performance by maintaining 165 mAh in the 5C rating.

The usual method is to dilute the solution used for its preparation. Li[Li0.2Ni0.13x+y/3Co0.13-x+y/3Mn0.54-x+y/3] Chico AlxZryO2 Zr-Al offset was similar to Li[Li0.2Ni0.13Co0.13Mn0. O2 found that the increase in Zr leads to an increase in lattice and an increase in lattice boundaries. In addition, the Al material improves the stability of the structure. Samples with Al (x = 0.02) and Zr (y = 0.015) had greater freedom of movement and duty cycle. The discharge capacity is calculated at 245 mAh at 25 mA at 1, with an efficiency of 98% after 50 cycles. Compared to the empty battery, its discharge capacity is 239 mAh, the energy storage is 25 mA -1, and 93.0% after 50 cycles.

 (a) Charge/discharge and (b) Cyclic performance of Li[Li0.2Ni0.13x+y/3Co0.13-x+y/3Mn0.54-x+y/3]AlxZryO2 sample having Al (x = 0.02) and Zr (y = 0.015)

Rapuleyan et al. Make Li0.2Mn0.6Ni0.2O2. A cathode rich in lithium and manganese by precipitation in a container at different pHs such as 9, 9.5, 10, and 10.5, leads to the adhesion of particles. However, the particles that were formed were collected at pH 10. The maximum voltage was given above 200 mA to the cathode material with a current density of 20 mA-1 in the voltage range is 2-4.8V-1 to 20mA-1, which maintains the discharge capacity. of 220 mAh to 50 mAh to 1 after 50 cycles. This new LiVPO4/C is prepared in one step at 60°C. The working voltage is about 4.2 V [60]. The specific capacity of LiVPO4/C at 0.2 and 5°C is 139.3 and 116.5 mAh. Electrical test. It showed that LiVPO4/C has the best transfer efficiency and the lowest resistance to charge transfer during use and installation. . Simple, CMK-3 can effectively prevent the synthesis of bismuth oxyfluoride molecules. It provides a fast path for lithium ions and electrons. It exhibits better cycling and flow stability than pure bismuth oxyfluoride.

4. Future prospects

For Li-ion batteries, the main points are pros and cons. Much recent effort has focused on electrical designs with high strength and rotational stability. There are also efforts to provide electricity in a simple and easy way. For Li-ion batteries, new materials such as Sb2O3 and TiO2/MoS2 have high potential as anode materials. Recently reported materials are expected to be cathodes such as P14AQ/CNT nanocomposite and Triplite LiFeSO4F. In addition, some commonly used electronics have been modified by processing, packaging, and mixing. This causes an increase in the diffusion of the Li-ion and an increase in the electric current. The action of the Ionic and the high speed during the charge/discharge is where the development of new electrical equipment and modern technology for the production of electricity is coming. It may have great potential to make Li-ion batteries more efficient than ever for large-scale applications.

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