Computer Science

Components of Computer Hardware

Different components of a computer hardware are as follows:

1. Input Devices

The data and instruction given to the computer is called input. A hardware component used to enter data and instruction into computer is called input device. Different types of input devices are used to input different types of data.

Most commonly used input devices are as follows:


Keyboard is used to enter text. It contains alphabetic, numeric and other keys for entering different type of data.


Mouse is a pointing device. It controls the pointer on the screen. The user gives instructions to computer using mouse. It contains different buttons to perform different tasks like selecting an object or opening a program.


Microphone is used to enter voice into the computer.


It reads printed text and graphics and translates results in digital form.

Digital Camera:

Digital camera is used to take and store picture in digital form.

Input Devices
Input Devices

2.  Output Devices

The data processed into useful information is called output. A hardware component used to display information to the user is called output device.

output device.
Output Devices

Most commonly used output devices are as follows: Monitor is used to display text, graphics and video output.

1. Monitor: Monitor is used to display text, graphics and video output.

2. Printer: Printer is used to display printed output on paper.

3. Speaker: Speaker is used to hear sound, music and voice outputs.

3. System Unit

System unit is a case that contains different electronic components of the computer used to process data. All computer systems have a system unit. The electronic components in the system unit are connected to motherboard. Motherboard is also known as system board or main board. System board is the communication medium for the entire computer system.

System Units
System Units

Two main components of system unit are as follows:


CPU stands for central processing unit. It is also called processor. It is the brain of the computer. It is the most important component of a computer. It performs the calculations and comparisons needed for the processing. It also controls the operations inside the computer. A computer cannot work without CPU. All computers must have a central processing unit.


The hardware component that stores data and instructions temporarily is called memory. It is also called primary memory or main memory. consists of electronic chips mounted on the motherboard. It is used to store input data before processing. It also stores processed data after processing until data is sent to the output device. The main memory is also called volatile because its contents are lost when the computer is turned off.

4. Storage Devices

The hardware components used to store data, instructions and information permanently are called storage devices. They are called nonvolatile as their contents are not lost when the computer is turned off. The storage devices are available in different sizes and capacities. They can be installed inside the computer or attached to the computer as an external device.

Some examples of storage devices are as follows:

Hard drive:

It is located inside the system unit to store data and programs.

Flash drive:

It is portable storage device used to store documents, photos, audios and videos etc. It can be used to move files from one computer to another easily.

Optical disc:

It is generally used to store software, photos, movies and music

Memory card:

It is removable flash memory that is used to store photos, audio files and other contents.

Storage Devices
Storage Devices

5. Communication Devices

The hardware components used to communicate and exchange data, instructions and information with other computers are called communication devices. Some examples of communication devices are as follows:


It is used to connect a computer to the Internet.

Network card:

It is used to connect a computer to a computer network.


It is used to connect different devices to share data and Internet connection.

Communication Devices
Communication Devices

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