Computer Science

Types of System

Common keywords. To understand system analysis and design, it is important to understand systems and how they work.

Definition of a System and Its Parts :

A system is a set of business processes (or components) that work together for many purposes in a business unit.

  • For example, the system in the payroll department monitors the checks, and the investment system manages the entries. The two systems are different. The system has nine features. With a detailed description of each feature, the system is located in a large global area. Boundaries separate the system from the environment. The system receives external information, processes it and outputs its output to the environment.

Elements of a System 

There are 9 elements of a system:

Elements of a System:


    1. Components
    2. Interrelated components
    3. Boundary
    4. Purpose
    5. Environment
    6. Interfaces
    7. Constraints
    8. Input
    9. Output

1. Components :

The parts or sum of the parts that make up the system; It is also called a subsystem.

2. Interrelated components :

It depends on one or more parts of the system.

3. Boundary :

A special line in and out of the system that separates the system from the environment.

4. Purpose :

The general purpose or function of the system.

5. Environment :

Any external system connected to the system.

6. Interfaces :

Connection point where systems can find or connect subsystems.

7. Constraints:

Limitations on what the system can achieve.

8. Input :

Input is the information that enters the system for the process.

9. Output :

The main purpose of the system is to get results that are beneficial to the users. The end result is processing.

Characteristics of System 

    • Organization
    • Interaction
    • Interdependence
    • Integration
    • Central Objective
  • Organization :

    • Structure and preparation.
    • Example: organizational hierarchy.
    • Introduction to various components of computer systems such as input.
    • devices, output devices, processor and storage devices.
  • Interaction :

    • Between subsystems or components
    • Example: A key memory contains information that the ALU must process.
  • Interdependence :

    • Members’ Association
    • Trust the stuff
  • Integration :

  • How subsystems are integrated to fulfill the purpose of the system.
  • Central Objective :

  • It must be noted at the first stage of the review.

Types of Systems 

    • Physical or Abstract System :
      • Rub parts of physical system
      • Mobile or vibrant in nature.
      • Example of a test center computer
      • Permanent parts tables and chairs
      • Applications, data and applications can vary according to user requirements.
      • True removal systems. These are not corporate bodies. The standard system can be as formulas, representations or models.
  • Open Closed System- Majority of systems are open systems :
    • Open systems have many connections to their environment
    • It can also adapt to changing environmental conditions
    • Data can be retrieved in and out.
    • Closed systems: systems that are not connected to their environment.
    • Closed systems exist only in ideology.
  • Man made Information System :
    • The information system is the basis of communication between the user and the specialist.
    • The main purpose is information management for a specific organization.

Further System Categorized as :

    1. Formal Information Systems: Responsible for the flow of information from senior management to lower management, but can provide feedback from lower management to senior management.
    2. Informal Information Systems: Informal systems rely on staff. This is done to solve problems related to daily work.
    3. Computer-Based Information Systems: This class of systems is based on the use of computers to manage business applications.

Computer-Based Information Systems

Computer-Based Information Systems

Information systems (IS) 

Organizations collect and manage data to produce useful information that supports the organization, its employees, customers, suppliers, and partners. Many organizations consider information systems that are essential for a competition. Most organizations recognize the need to be involved in the development of information systems for employees at risk.

    1. Movement processing system (TPS)
    2. Management Information System (MIS)
    3. Decision Support System (DSS)
    4. Executive Information System (EIS)
    5. Expert systems (ES)
    6. Communication and collaboration systems (CCS)
    7. Automation system (AS)
  1. Transaction processing systems (TPS): Work on items such as orders, cards, payments, and repurchases.
  2. Management Information systems (MIS): Use the trading data to create the information that administrators need to run the business.
  3. Decision support systems (DSS): Helps different decision makers identify and select options or decision.
  4. Executive information system (EIS): Designed for the specific information needs of managers who make plans for the company and evaluate the success of those plans.
  5. Expert systems (ES): Capture and reconstruct the knowledge of the expert who solved a problem or decision and then slow down the “idea” of that expert.
  6. Communications and collaboration system (CCS): Increase Communication and cooperation between people internally and externally.
  7. Automation systems (AS):  Finally, an office automation system helps employees create and share documents that support day-to-day operations.

Important Information System Concepts 

Systems analysts need to know many important concepts of other systems.

    1. Decomposition
    2. Modularity
    3. Coupling
    4. Cohesion

1. Decomposition :

Decomposition sharing is a process. These components can be subsystems and can be subdivided into sections. The analysis also allows us to focus on a specific part of the system, making it easier to think about how to improve a completely systematic part – independently. Analysis is a system that allows system analysts to:

    1. Build different parts of the system at a time independently and with the help of different analysts
    2. Focus on one area at a time without disturbing other areas. Focus on specific parts of the system for specific user groups without disregarding unnecessary data
    3. Divide the system into sub-systems that are easier to manage and understand.

2. Modularity :

It is a direct result of dissolution. Refers to a system partition with blocks or similar modules. The module makes the system easy to see, making it easy to understand, design and redesign. For example, for MP3 players, analysis of each subsystem shows that the whole system is easy to understand.

3. Coupling :

Coupling is the subsystems are interconnected. Subsystems should be as neutral as possible. If one of the subsystems fails and the other subsystems rely heavily on it, the other systems fail or fail. Portable MP3 players are tightly integrated. The best example of this is a control system consisting of a printed circuit board and a chip. All the functions that the MP3 player can perform are enabled on the board and chip. Instead of trying to find and fix the problem on the board, failure of one part of the circuit board usually results in replacement of the entire board. Although the circuit board can be repaired in an MP3 player, it is often not economical; The cost of diagnosis and resolution can be higher than the city council. In a home stereo system, components can be easily integrated because subsystems such as subwoofers, amplifiers, and CD players are separated from the body and itself. If the amplifier fails in the downstream stereo system, simply repair the amplifier.

4. Cohesion :

Cohesion Subsystem is the degree to which it operates. In the MP3 player’s example, the power supply is a special function. This short system discussion should prepare you to think about computer information systems and how to create them. Most of the same principles that apply to systems tend to apply to information systems. In the next section, we review the information system development process and how the tools that support it have changed over the years.

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