Computer Science

History of Computer

Computer was invented because “necessity is the mother of invention”. Man always searched for a fast calculating device. it took a long time to invent the digital computer.

A brief history behind the invention of the computer is as follows:

Abacus

Abacus was first computing device. It was developed 5000 years ago by Chinese. It was used to perform simple addition and subtraction. Abacus was a wooden rack with horizontal writes containing beads. The beads could move easily. All simple arithmetic calculations were performed by moving the beads.

Abacus
Abacus

Napier’s Bone

John Napier was a Scottish scientist. he invented a device in 1614 known as Napier’s Bones. the device used rods to perform arithmetic calculations. He also created logarithm tables for making calculations easily.

John Napier
John Napier
Napier's Bones.
Napier’s Bones Cardboard

Slide Rule

An English mathematician William Oughtred developed a device known as Slide Rule in 1622. It was based on the idea of logarithm. It was very useful in solving the problems related to multiplications and divisions. The device consisted of three parts called slide, rule and sliding cursor.

Slide Rule 
Slide Rule 

Pascaline

Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician. He invented a calculating machine in 1642. The machine was known as Pascaline. The machine had metal wheels with the Digit 0 to 9. The calculation was done by rotating the wheels. It could only add subtract the whole numbers.

Pascaline
Pascaline

Leibniz Calculator

Von Leibniz was a German scientist. He invented a calculating machine in 1694. It was the first calculator that could add, subtract, multiply and divide. It was more reliable and accurate than Pascal’s calculator.

Pascal
Pascal
von leibniz
Von Leibniz

 Jacquard’s Loom

Jacquard’s Marie from France invented a machine Jacquard’s Loom in 1801. The machine could read punched cards to design a pattern automatically. It  was used in textile manufacturing. The invention of this machine helped in making programmable machine like computer.

 Jacquards-Loom
Jacquard’s Loom

Babbage’s Differential and Analytical Engines

Charles Babbage was an English mathematician. He designed an automatic mechanical calculating machine in 1822 known as Difference Engine.  The machine worked by steam power and was fully automatic. The machine could calculate the table of numbers.

Charles Babbage, mathematician and English speaker, was born in London on December 26, 1791 and died in London on October 18, 1871.

Analytical Engine
Analytical Engine

Charles Babbage also designed an automatic machine in 1834 known as analytical engine. It worked on the same principle that is used in modern computer. It was more intelligent machine and was fully controlled by computer program. He could not complete it as the technology was not advanced. However, he laid the information for modern digital computers. That is why he is known as the father of computers.

Father Of Computer Mother Of Computer
Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage born in 1791, is considered the father of computing for his work on computing. Babbage’s Difference Engine 1 was the first that could calculate and print mathematical graphs.

Ada Lovelace

Ada Lovelace was known as the mother of computers. Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, English mathematician and author, is best known for her work on general mechanical mathematics by Charles Babbage, the Analytical Engine.

Hollerith Desk

An American statistician Herman Hollerith developed a tabulating machine in 1890 known as Hollerith Desk. It was used in American census. It had a card reader that could read the holes in the punched cards. It also had the ability to count and display the result. The solutions of different problems could be stored on the cards.

Hollerith started a company known as Tabulating Machine Company. The company changed its name to International Business Machines (IBM) later.

Herman Hollerith
Herman Hollerith
Tabulator
Tabulator

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