Information Technology

Components affecting speed


  1. How data represent in computer
  2. How to process data in a computer
  3. Components affecting speed
  4. Microcomputer processor

How data represent in Computer

➢ Computer works with binary numbers.

➢ Binary numbers maybe 0 or 1.

➢ The data inside the computer is represented as electrical pulses.

➢ The binary digit is known as a bit.

➢ It is an abbreviation of the binary digit

How to process data in a Computer

There are following steps to process data in a computer are as:


➢ Central Processing Unit

➢ Brain of the computer

➢ Control Unit

➢ Control recourses in computer

➢ Instruction set

➢ Arithmetic Logic Unit

➢ Simple math operations

➢ Registers

Machine Cycles

➢ Steps by CPU to process data

➢ Instruction cycle

➢ CPU gets the instruction

➢ Execution cycle

➢ CPU performs the instruction

➢ Billions of cycles per second

➢ Pipelining processes more data

➢ Multitasking allows multiple instructions


➢ Stores open programs and data

➢ Small chips on the motherboard

➢ More memory makes a computer faster

Nonvolatile Memory

➢ Holds data when power is off

➢ Read Only Memory (ROM)

➢ Basic Input Output System (BIOS)

➢ Power On Self Test (POST)

Flash Memory

➢ Data is stored using physical switches

➢ Special form of nonvolatile memory

➢ Camera cards, USB key chains

Components Affecting Speed


➢ The most minor computer memory is the register

➢ Registers are present inside the CPU

➢ Normal CPU consist of a 32-bit register size

➢ Large size indicates the more powerful computer

➢ Increase by purchasing a new CPU

Virtual RAM

➢ More RAM makes the computer run fast

➢ CPU then swaps data to virtual RAM

➢ The least recently used data is moved

➢ RAM is used to store data and instructions temporarily

Internal clock

➢ There exists an internal clock in the computer made up of Quartz crystal.

➢ This clockdoes not give us time

➢ When electricity is applied to Quartz crystal, its molecules begin to vibrate millions of times per second.

➢ Processors can execute an instruction in a given number of clock cycles.

➢ Speed measured in Hartz

Cache Memory

➢ Very fast memory

➢ 2nd fastest memory of a computer after registers

➢ Located on the CPU or very near the CPU chip

➢ Holds common or recently used data

➢ Speeds up computer processing


➢ Electronic pathways between components, like pathway between RAM and CPU

➢ There are two types of buses

        1. Expansion bus connect to peripherals device like Mouse, Keyboard, and Printer.
        2. System bus connects the CPU and RAM

➢ Bus width is measured in bits

➢ Speed is tired to the clock

Microcomputer Processor

➢ Microcomputer is an electronic device.

➢ The microprocessor as a central processing unit is known as a microcomputer.

➢ Microcomputerare small inexpensive, and portable.

➢ Microcomputer is the most important component of a microcomputer.

➢ Processor on a chip can be described as a microprocessor.

➢ It can support one user at a time.

➢ It is typically a single CPU, a single-user system that is used at home, school, shops, etc.

➢ A processor is made of two basic elements

        1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
        1. FloatingPoint Unit (FPU)

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