Information Technology

What is Computer Networking & its Types?

A computer network allows a computer to connect and disconnect with another computer and share data and applications.


A computer network is a set of computer resources that are shared or accessed by network nodes. In digital communications, computers use common communication protocols to communicate with each other. These connections are based on communications network technologies and can be routed over a variety of network architectures in physical, wired, optical and wireless radio frequency modes.

Computer Networking
Computer Networking



Computer network can be shared. There are four main types of computer networks:

  1. LAN ( Local Area Network )
  2. PAN ( Personal Area Network )
  3. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
  4. WAN ( Wide Area Network )

1. LAN ( Local Area Network )

  • A local area network is a group of computers interconnected in a small space, such as a building or an office.
  • A LAN is used to connect two or more personal computers, such as a pair of cables, a coaxial cable, etc.
  • It’s cheaper because it’s made with cheaper hardware like splices, network adapters, and Ethernet cables.
  • Data is sent very quickly over the local network.
  • The local network provides maximum security.

2. PAN ( Personal Area Network )

 PAN Personal-Area-Network-
“PAN (Personal-Area-Network)”
  • The private network is a unique torpedo, especially at a distance of 10 meters.
  • A private network is used to connect personal computers.
  • Thomas Zimmermann was the first researcher to come up with the idea of ​​a personal torpedo.
  • The private network takes about 30 feet.
  • Personal computer tools used to develop a personal device include laptops, mobile phones, media players, and game consoles.



There are two types of PAN ( Personal Area Network ):

  1. Wired Personal Area  Network
  2. Wireless Personal Area Network

1. Wired (Personal Area  Network):     The private wireless network was created using wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. This is a small area network.

2. Wireless (Personal Area Network):      Wired Personal Area Network is created by using the USB and card etc.


  • Body Area Network:     A body area network is a network that works with one person. For example, a mobile torpedo interacts with a person. Imagine that someone connects to a network and connects to another device to share information.
  • Offline network:      Offline network is also called home network because you can create an offline network at home. A home network is designed to integrate devices such as printers, computers, and televisions, but is not connected to the Internet.
  • Small indoor office:    Small indoor office that allows you to connect multiple devices to the Internet and connect to your corporate network via VPN.

3. MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network )

  • A metropolitan area network is a network that includes a large geographic area connected to a LAN intended to form a large network.
  • Government agencies use people to communicate with citizens and the private sector.
  • In a LAN, you connect multiple LANs to a phone line.
  • The protocols most commonly used in humans are RS-232, Frame Relay, ATM, ISDN, OC-3, ADSL, and more.
  • It is larger than a local area network (LAN).


  • MAN is used to communicate between city banks.
  • Can be used on air contact.
  • Can be used in university city.
  • Can be used to communicate in the military.

4. WAN ( Wide Area Network )

  • A geographic network is a network that covers many geographic areas, such as a state or country.
  • Broadband is a much larger network than a LAN.
  • A geographic network is not limited to one location, but covers a large geographic area with telephone lines, fiber-optic cables, or satellite connections.
  • The Internet is one of the largest WANs in the world.
  • WAN is widely used in business, government and education.


  • Mobile Broadband:     4G mobile network is widely used locally and nationally.
  • Last mile:       The phone company’s final step is to connect its home to a fiber-optic network and provide Internet access to its customers in hundreds of cities.
  • Private Network:    Close-Bank offers a private network that connects all 44 branches. This network was developed using the telephone line provided by the telephone company.


Here are the benefits of a great torpedo.

  • Geographical area:     A wide geographical network provides a large geographical area. Let’s say you have an account in another city and you can contact them via WAN. The Internet offers a rental service to connect to another account.
  • Decentralized Data:    In a WAN, data is centralized. So you don’t need to buy emails, files or storage servers.
  • Download Updated Files:    Free software companies work directly on the server. Therefore, programmers can see updated files in seconds.
  • Messages:     Messages are sent quickly over a WAN. Web applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Skype allow you to communicate with your friends.
  • Sharing programs and resources:    You can share programs and other resources on the WAN, such as the hard disk and RAM.
  • Global business:    We can do business both internationally and internationally.
  • High Bandwidth:    Provides high bandwidth when using leased lines for our business. High snow data rates are increasing, which also increases the productivity of our business.


Below are the disadvantages of a large torpedo.

  • Security Issue:    There are many security issues when WAN can be combined with all the technologies that cause security issues with LAN and MAN networks.
  • Needs Firewall & antivirus software:    It requires walls and antivirus software, so use walls because they can be modified or hacked by hackers. Some people need an antivirus to block these types of viruses.
  • High Cost Setup Pages:    The cost of installing a WAN is high because it covers the purchase of routers and switches.
  • Troubleshooting problems:      Solving the problem is difficult because it takes up a lot of space.


  • Operation of the Internet Two or more computers on a LAN or one or more computer network components are connected to the devices and configured according to the local address scheme. This process is called Internet work.
  • It can also be said that the relationships between public, private, commercial, industrial, or government computer networks operate on the Internet.
  • Internet work uses the Internet Protocol.
  • The reference model used to operate the Internet is Open System Communication (OSI).


There are two types of Internetwork:

  1. Extranet
  2. Intranet

1. Extranet:

An extranet is a network of Internet protocols such as the Internet Protocol and Transport Protocol. Useful for sharing information. Access to the extranet can be restricted by users with login credentials. An extranet is the lowest level of activity on the Internet. Available as a MAN, WAN, or other computer network. The extranet may not contain a single LAN, at least not connected to an external network.

2. Intranet:

         The Internet is a network based on Internet Protocol, such as Transport Control Protocol and Internet Protocol. The Internet is owned by an organization and is available only to employees or members of that organization. The main purpose of Internet networks is to share information and resources with employees. The Internet provides group and teleconferencing services.


  • Communication: Provides easy and cheap communication. Company employees can communicate with other employees via email and chat.
  • Save time:      Share information online in real time to save time.
  • Collaboration:      Collaboration is one of the most important networks in the Internet. The information is published to the employees of the organization and can only be accessed by authorized users.
  • Platform independency:     Freedom Platform is architecture independent because your computer can connect to another device with different architecture.
  • Cost effective:     Appropriate people use the browser to view data and documents and distribute copies over the Internet. This leads to cost savings.


  • Expensive and timely application.
  • Internet implementation can be very expensive and time consuming.
  • Complexity and heavy administrative burden.
  • Little user experience.
  • Low user acceptance.
  • Look for long-term information.
  • For internal use only.
  • Lack of a labor lawyer.
  • The measure of success and efficiency is difficult

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