MS Access

Data processing and Activities

The process of manipulating data to archive the required objectives and results is called data processing. It is also known as operations on data. The software is used to process data and convert it into meaningful information. A series of actions or operations are performed on data to get the required output or result.

Activities in Data Processing

Different activities involved in data processing are as follows:

  • Data Capturing
  • Data Manipulation
  • Managing Output Results

1. Data Capturing:

The process of recording the data in some form is called data capturing. Data is captured before it can be processed. Data may be recorded on source documents. Data can also be given directly to the computer through input devices.

2. Data Manipulation:

The process of applying different operation on data is called data manipulation. The following operations can be performed on data:

Classifying: A process of organizing data into classes or groups is called Classifying. For Example, the data in a college can be classified in two groups. The data of students may be in one group and data of teachers may be in second group.  
Calculation: A process of applying arithmetic operations on data is called calculation. The common calculations are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division etc. For Example, the total marks of student are calculated to find the grade.  
Sorting: The process of arranging data in a logical sequence is called sorting. The data can be sorted numerically or alphabetically. For Example, the names of the students can be sorted according to the obtained marks.  
Summarizing: The process of arranging a large amount of data in a more concise and usable from is called Summarizing. For Example, the data of the students in a class can be summarized to show the number of passed and failed students.  

3. Managing Output Result:

The following activities can be performed on data after the data has been captured and manipulated:

Storage: The process of retaining data for future use is called data storage. Different storage medium are used to store the data such as hard disks and tapes etc. For Example, the student data is stored on the hard disk.  
Retrieval: The process of accessing or fetching the stored data is called data retrieval. The data can be retrieved as and when required. The retrieved data can be displayed in different forms such as reports, graphs and charts etc. For Example, the student data can be retrieved from the hard disk anytime to prepare the result card.  
Communication: The process of transferring data from one location to another is called data communication. The data may be transferred to different locations for further processing. For Example, the result can be sent to the students via email.  
Reproduction: The process of copying or duplicating data is called reproduction. Data can be reproduced if different users need data at different locations.  

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