MS Access

File processing system and its Problems

File Processing System

The File Processing System was used by different organizations to store and manage data. The typical file processing system uses different set of files for each department in an organization. The records in one file may not be related stored in other files.


Problems in Traditional File Approach

The business organizations faced the following problems in traditional file approach:

  1. Data Redundancy
  2. Data Inconsistency
  3. Program Data Dependency
  4. Lack of Flexibility
  5. Integrity Problems
  6. Security Problems

1. Data Redundancy:

Data Redundancy means duplication of data in multiple files. The redundancy of data cause wastage of storage. In file processing system, the same data may be duplicated in several files.

Suppose that two files are used in a college. The student file contains the contains the data such as Roll No, Name, Address, Phone and other details of the students. The Library file contains the same data of the students who borrow books from library along with the information about the book. The data of one student appears in two files.

2. Data Inconsistency:

Data redundancy in files system results in data inconsistency problem. Inconsistency means that two files may contain different data of the same entity.

For example:

For example, the address of a student must be updated in all files if any change occurs. It is possible that it is change in Student file but not in library file. The data becomes inconsistent in this situation.

3. Program Data Dependency:

Program data dependency is a relationship between data in files and program required to update and maintain the files. Application programs are developed according to a particular file format in the file processing system. If the format of file is changed, the application program also needs to be changed accordingly.

For example:

For example, if there is a change in the length of postal code, it requires change in the program. The changes may be costly to implement.

4. Lack of Flexibility:

The file processing system is not very flexible. It can take a lot of time to collect the data from different files and write programs to produce the desired information.

5. Integrity Problems:

Integrity means reliability and accuracy of data. The stored data must satisfy certain types of consistency constraints.

For example:

For example, Roll No and marks of the students should be numeric value. It is very difficult to apply these constraints on files in file processing system.

6. Security Problems:

File processing system does not provide adequate security on data. In some situations, it is required to provide different types of access to data for different users.

For example:

For example, a data entry operator should only be allowed to enter data. The chairman of the organization should be able to  access or delete the data completely. Such types of security options are not available in file processing system.

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